The recent arrival of American White Pelicans to the Salt Lake Valley started me thinking about the differences between Brown Pelicans and American White Pelicans. The obvious difference is the color of these large fishing eating birds but there are other differences too. American White Pelicans are larger than Brown Pelicans with a wingspan of up to 108 inches and a weight of around 16.4 pounds. The upper mandible is yellow to pinkish and the pouch is yellow with hints of orange near the base, the bare skin around the eyes is yellow and the legs and feet vary from yellowish green in Definitive Basic plumage to orange-red in Definitive Alternate plumage.
Brown Pelicans have a wingspan of about 79 inches which is about 2 1/2 feet less than American White Pelicans and Brown Pelicans are also about half the weight of American White Pelicans at approximately 8.2 pounds. The pouch of Atlantic Brown Pelicans is a grayish and during breeding season Pacific Brown Pelicans have a reddish orange pouch closest to the face and grayish green towards the tip of the bill. The feet and legs of Brown Pelicans are gray to black depending on age and season.
American White Pelicans forage cooperatively and will often display synchronized movements while foraging. They dip their bills into the water, scoop up the prey into their pouches and then raise their bills horizontally to swallow the prey. They forage from the surface of the water. I often think that their foraging behavior almost like watching a ballet.
Brown Pelicans plunge dive for their prey and it can look quite dramatic at times. They fly over the prey, fold their wings and plunge head first into the water. They then surface with their bills close to their bodies and allow the water to drain out of the pouch then they swallow their prey with a toss of their heads. I once saw a Brown Pelican swallow a small shark in one gulp. Brown Pelicans; including Peruvian Pelicans, are the only pelicans to feed using the plunge-dive method. Watching a squadron of a hundred or more Brown Pelicans plunge diving is exciting!
There are of course other differences that I haven’t mentioned but I think I have covered the basics.
I find both the American White Pelicans and Brown Pelicans to be excellent subjects to observe and photograph.
PS: There are a few records of Brown Pelicans in Utah, the most recent sightings were in May of 2004.
The American White Pelicans were photographed in Utah, the single bird in Salt Lake County and the foraging pelicans at Farmington Bay WMA. The Brown Pelicans were photographed at Fort De Soto County Park in Florida.